Zvonimir's kingdom
Zvonimirovo kraljevstvo
Component of Austria-Hungary
flag coat of arms
Lijepa naša domovino
"Our Beautiful Homeland"
Zvonimir's kingdom (light green) within Austria-Hungary, the other parts being Transleithania (green) and Cisleithania (light yellow)
Capital Zagreb
Languages Croatian
Government Constitutional monarchy
 •  1918–1919 Karlo IV
Ban (Viceroy)
 •  1918–1919 Antun Mihalović
Prime Minister
 •  1918–1919 Aleksandar Horvat
 •  Kingdom proclaimed 22 October 1918
 •  Unification of Illyria 27 January 1919
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs

Zvonimir's kingdom (Croatian: Zvonimirovo kraljevstvo) was a formal short-lived Croatian entity within the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1918 until 1919. Formed in the aftermath of the World War by uniting Bosnia and Herzegovina and Dalmatia with Croatia-Slavonia. With Austria-Hungary's reforms transforming the empire, on 27 January 1919, the Croatian Parliament declared unification with Slovenian lands to form the Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.

History[edit | edit source]

Croatian romantic nationalism emerged in the mid-19th century to counteract the apparent Germanization and Magyarization of Croatia. The Illyrian movement attracted a number of influential figures from the 1830s on, and produced some important advances in the Croatian language and culture.

In the Revolutions of 1848 Croatia, driven by fear of Magyar nationalism, supported the Habsburg court against Hungarian revolutionary forces. However, despite the contributions of its ban Jelačić in quenching the Hungarian war of independence, Croatia, not treated any more favourably by Vienna than the Hungarians themselves, lost its domestic autonomy. In 1867 the Dual Monarchy was created; Croatian autonomy was restored in 1868 with the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement which was comparatively favourable for the Croatians, but still problematic because of issues such as the unresolved status of Rijeka.

The World War brought rapid changes to the Habsburg Empire. Croatia suffered great loss of life in the war and Croatian delegations attempted to attain trialism throughout the entire conflict, but even though they had support from emperor Karl I (IV), they were always declined and vetoed by the Hungarian side, which wanted to preserve the integrity of the Hungarian crown.

In response to emperor Karl's manifest of 14 October 1918, the Croatian pro-monarchy political party Pure Party of Rights Dr. Aleksandar Horvat, with parliament members Ivo Frank and Josip Pazman, and generals Lukas Šnjarić and Mihael Mihaljević, went to visit king Karl I (IV) on 21 October 1918 in Bad Ischl. Since the king was favorable to the earlier Croatian trialist proposals from 1917, which were vetoed by the Hungarian side, the king agreed and signed the trialist manifest under the proposed terms set by the delegation, on the condition that the Hungarian part does the same since he swore an oath on the integrity of the Hungarian crown. The delegation went the next day to Budapest where it met Count Istvan Tisza and presented the manifest on 22 October 1918 to the Hungarian Council of Ministers led by Hungarian prime minister Sándor Wekerle, who released the king from his oath, and signed the manifest on the creation and unification of all Croatian lands into a single state. After the signing of the manifest, in Zagreb Fran Milobar got a telegram to prepare a public proclamation of the creation of "Zvonimir's kingdom".

According to the Croatian delegation in Budapest after the signing the trialist manifest Count Istva Tisza stated "Ich sehe ein, dass wir gegenüber Kroatien grosse Fehler begangen haben" (I realized that we have made some great mistakes towards Croatia). After the signing, a parades was held in Zagreb for saving the trialist monarchy.

On 27 January 1919, the Croatian Sabor (parliament), on the basis of a complete right of self-determination which, united all Croatian lands and entered the Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.

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