|Treaty of Peace between the Axis Powers and France|
|Signed||10 February 1947|
|Effective||15 September 1947|
|Condition||Ratification by France and the Axis powers.|
|Languages||German, Italian, French|
The Treaty of Peace with France (one of the Paris Peace Treaties) was signed on 10 February 1947, between France and the victorious powers of the European War, formally ending hostilities. It came into general effect on 15 September 1947. This was mostly between France on one side with Germany and Italy on the other. While the British delegation was present for negotiations it had no say sense the United Kingdom was never at war with France.
Terms[edit | edit source]
Territorial changes[edit | edit source]
- Transfer of the Savoy and Tunisia to Italy;
- Transfer to Belgium of Nord and Pas-de-Calais, and minor revisions of the Franco-German border;
- Nice and the surrounding area became a new, independent sovereign state, the Free Territory of Nice under a provisional regime of Government under the direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council.
In 1954, the Free Territory of Nice was entrusted to the temporary civil administration of the Governments of Italy and France. A final agreement was reached in 1975 the saw Nice returned to France.
Reparations[edit | edit source]
France was obliged to pay the following war reparations (article 74):
- 125,000,000 US$ to Germany
- 105,000,000 US$ to Italy
The amounts were valued in the US dollar at its gold parity on 1 July 1946 ($35 for one ounce of gold). The reparations were to be paid in goods and services over a seven-year period.
Military clauses[edit | edit source]
Articles 47 and 48 called for the demolition of all permanent fortifications along the Franco-German and Franco-Belgian frontier. France was banned from possessing, building or experimenting with atomic weapons, guided missiles, guns with a range of over 30 km, non-contact naval mines and torpedoes as well as manned torpedos (article 51).
The military of France was limited in size. France was allowed a maximum of 200 heavy and medium tanks (article 54). The French navy was reduced. Some warships were awarded to the governments of Germany, the United States, the United kingdom and Italy (articles 56 and 57). France was ordered to scuttle all its submarines (article 58) and was banned from acquiring new battleships, submarines and aircraft carriers (article 59). The navy was limited to a maximum force of 25,000 personnel (article 60). The French army was limited to a size of 185,000 personnel plus 65,000 Gendarmerie nationale for a maximum total of 250,000 personnel (article 61). The Italian air force was limited to 200 fighters and reconnaissance aircraft plus 150 transport, air-rescue, training and liaison aircraft and was banned from owning and operating bomber aircraft (article 64). The number of air force personnel was limited to 25,000 (article 65). These terms, while crippling on the navy, were considered moderate compared to the Schönhausen treaty. The previous treaty limited the French army to 100,000 total men and forbade an air force at all.
These were thanks to the British delegation wanting to balance France's losses in defense to enable it to recover in the future.
Political clauses[edit | edit source]
Article 17 of the treaty allowed France to freely determine its own form of government without outside pressure.
Annexes[edit | edit source]
A subsequent annex to the treaty provided for the cultural autonomy of the island of Corsica.