Union of Soviet Socialist

Republics

Союз Советских Социалистических

Республик

Former county
1942–1991
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Workers of the world, unite!
Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
Anthem
The Internationale
The Soviet Union after the European War.
Capital Khabarovsk (de facto)
Moscow (de jure)
Languages Russian
Religion Officially Atheist; but some Christians, Buddhists, Sunni Muslims and Tengranists.
Government Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist state
General Secretary
 •  1942–1953 Vyacheslav Molotov (first)
 •  1990–1991 Gennady Yanayev (last)
Premier
 •  1942–1957 Anastas Mikoyan (first)
 •  1985–1991 Vitaly Vorotnikov (last)
History
 •  Treaty on Creation 30 December 1922
 •  Moscow Armistice Agreement 7 January 1942
 •  Constitution adopted 9 October 1977
 •  Reunification 20 August 1991
Currency Soviet ruble
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Soviet Union
Russia

Soviet Union (Russian:Сове́тский Сою́з / Sovetskiy Soyuz), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR; Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (СССР) / Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik (SSSR)), was a country in Northern Asia, a rump state of its remaining territory after the armistice that ended the European War was signed in 1942.

History[edit | edit source]

During the Russian Civil War, the Far Eastern part of the former Russian Empire was a battleground for violence between the Communists and the remnants of the Whites. The fighting in this front expanded from Outer Mongolia, through Eastern Siberia, and in the Ussuri and Amur districts of Outer Manchuria in Russia. In the aftermath, the Whites were forced into exile. The Americans left Siberia and the Russian Far East in 1920. Japan held it even after the Whites were defeated, and would not withdraw until October 1922. With the war over, the Soviet government in Russia was able to keep all of Russia's pre-war territories in the Far East.

Between 1937 and 1939, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin deported over 200,000 Koreans to Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, fearing that the Koreans might act as spies for Japan. Many Koreans died on the way in cattle trains due to starvation, illness, or freezing conditions. Many community leaders were purged and executed, Koryo-saram were not allowed to travel outside of Central Asia for the next 15 years. Koreans were also not allowed to use the Korean language and its use began to become lost with the involvement of Koryo-mar and the use of Russian.

Development of numerous remote locations relied on GULAG labour camps during Stalin's rule, especially in the region's northern half. After that, the large-scale use of forced labour waned and was superseded by volunteer employees attracted by relatively high wages.

Soviet–Japanese conflicts[edit | edit source]

Template:Main article During the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Soviets occupied Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island, Yinlong Island, and several adjacent islets to separate the city of Khabarovsk from the territory controlled by a possibly hostile power.

Indeed, Japan turned its military interests to Soviet territories. Conflicts between the Japanese and the Soviets frequently happened on the border of Manchuria between 1938 and 1941. The first confrontation occurred in Primorsky Krai, the Battle of Lake Khasan was an attempted military incursion of Manchukuo (Japanese) into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union. This incursion was founded in the beliefs of the Japanese side that the Soviet Union misinterpreted the demarcation of the boundary based on the Treaty of Peking between Imperial Russia and Manchu China. Primorsky Krai was always threatened by a Japanese invasion despite the fact that most of the remaining clashes occurred in Manchukuo.

The clashes ended with the signing of the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact in 1941.

European War[edit | edit source]

By 1941 the war in Europe had turned against the Soviets, many enterprises and people were evacuated into Siberian cities by the railroads. In urgent need of ammunition and military equipment, they started working right after being unloaded near the stations. Most of the evacuated enterprises remained at their new sites after the war. They increased industrial production in Siberia to a great extent, and became constitutive for many cities, like Rubtsovsk. The most Eastern city to receive them was Ulan-Ude, since Chita was considered dangerously close to China and Japan.

On 28 August 1941 the Supreme Soviet stated an order "About the Resettlement of the Germans of Volga region", by which many of them were deported into different rural areas of Kazakhstan and Siberia.

Post-war Industrialisation[edit | edit source]

In the second half of the 20th century, the exploration of mineral and hydroenergetic resources boomed. Many of these projects were planned, but were delayed due to wars and the ever changing opinions of Soviet politicians.

The cascade of hydroelectric powerplants was built in the 1960s–1970s on the Angara River, a project similar to Tennessee Valley Authority in the United States. The power plants allowed the creation and support of large production facilities, such as the aluminium plant in Bratsk, Ust-Ilimsk, rare-earth mining in Angara basin, and those associated with the timber industry.

The downside of this development is the ecological damage due to the low standards of production and excessive sizes of dams (the bigger projects were favoured by the industrial authorities and received more funding), the increased humidity sharpened the already hard climate. Another power plant project on Katun River in the Altai mountains in the 1980s, which was widely protested publicly, was cancelled. Lake Baikal was badly polluted by pollution from the local wood pulp industry between 1975 and 1985, but things were improved by the 1989 Lake Baikal Anti-Pollution Laws.

Coal, gold, graphite, iron ore, cobalt, aluminum ore, zinc, and lead were mined in the area, and livestock is raised in the region. It was developing mining industry (coal, cobalt, gold, and more) since the early 1980s.

Manufacturing plants were first built around Irkutsk during the early and mid 1970s. They included brickyards, sawmills, furniture manufacturing, clothing and food-processing plants.

Food processing, timber, furniture, clothing, tractor and metalworking industries were developed in the south during the late 1980s.

A modest railway and highway were built between Bratsk, Ust-Ilimsk, Irkutsk, Kyzyl, Yakutsk, Ulan-Ude and Ulaanbaatar, the capital of thire vassal state of Mongolia, in 1989.

The population was 35,575,000 in 1991. The leading ethnic groups were Russians 75%, Ukrainians 12%, Belorussian 5%, Korean 5%, Buryats 1%, Tuvinians 1%, Azeris, Uzbeks, Armenians, Yakuts, Siberian Tatars, Soyot, Georgian, Koryaks, Nenets, Kazakhs, Sakha, Altai, Chukchi, Evenk, Khanti, Mansi, Mansi, and Nenets.

The religions were officially Atheist; but some Christians, Buddhists, Sunni Muslims and Tengrist in 1991.

The average January low was −25 °C (−13 °F).

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