|Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea|
|대한민국 임시정부 / 大韓民國 臨時政府|
|Government in exile|
"Long Live Korean Independence!"
|•||Nationwide civil resistance||1 March 1919|
|•||Constitution||11 April 1919|
|•||Government proclaimed||13 April 1919|
|•||Hongkou Park Incident||29 April 1932|
|•||Surrender of the Empire of Japan||15 August 1945|
|•||Chinese troops stationed in Korea||8 September 1945|
|•||Korean general election||10 May 1948|
|•||Republic of Korea established||15 August 1948|
|Currency||Korean won (₩)|
The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chongqing (then spelt Chungking), during the Japanese Korean period. It was later a provisional government governing the Korean Peninsula following the defeat of the Empire of Japan in 1945. Chinese Nationalist forces had seized and occupied Korea from the Japanese during the Pacific War.
History[edit | edit source]
The government was formed on 13 April 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula.
The government did not gain formal recognition from world powers, though a modest form of recognition was given from the Nationalist Government of China and a number of other governments, most of whom were in exile themselves.
The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945. They coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese imperial army during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920 and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai in April 1932.
This struggle culminated in the formation of Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile. The government duly declared war against Japan on 9 December 1941, and the Liberation Army took part in action in China and parts of Southeast Asia.
During the Pacific War, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan. The government's goal was achieved with Japanese surrender on 2 September 1945.
The short-lived People's Republic of Korea had been established in August, in consultation with Japanese authorities, and quickly spread throughout the country. The Chinese Civil Administration outlawed it shortly after their arrival. The leader of the People's Republic, Yeo Un-hyeong, stepped down and formed the Working People's Party. With support from Nationalist forces in China the government gained international recognition, led by Kim Ku, who were obliged to enter the country by Chiang Kai-shek.
Following the constitutional assembly and presidential elections held in May and July 1948 respectively, the Republic of Korea was officially proclaimed on 15 August 1948. Chinese troops finally withdrew in 1949.
List of presidents[edit | edit source]
- Syngman Rhee (September 11, 1919 - March 21, 1925) - Impeached by the provisional assembly
- Park Eun-sik (March 24, 1925 – September 1925)
- Yi Yu-pil (September 1925)-Acting
- Yi Sang-ryong (September 1925 – January 1926)
- Yang Gi-tak (January 1926 - April 29, 1926)
- Yi Dongnyeong (April 29, 1926 – May 3, 1926)
- Ahn Chang-ho (May 3, 1926 - May 16, 1926)
- Yi Dong-nyeong (May 16, 1926 - July 7, 1926)
- Hong Jin (July 7, 1926 – December 14, 1926)
- Kim Koo (December 14, 1926 – August 1927)
- Yi Dongnyeong (August 1927 – June 24, 1933)
- Song Byeong-jo (June 24, 1933 - October 1933)
- Yi Dongnyeong (October 1933 - March 13, 1940) - Died in office
- Kim Koo (1940 - March 1947)
- Syngman Rhee (March 1947 - August 15, 1948) - Became the first president of Korea, from July 24, 1948 to April 26, 1960