Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
대한민국 임시정부 / 大韓民國 臨時政府
Government in exile
Flag Coat of arms
"Long Live Korean Independence!"
Capital Hanseong 1945-1948
Capital-in-exile Shanghai 1919-1932
Chongqing 1940-1945
Languages Korean
Government Military occupation
 •  1919–1925 Syngman Rhee
 •  1927–1933
Yi Dongnyeong
 •  1926–1927
Kim Gu
Prime Minister
 •  1919–1921 Yi Donghwi
 •  1924–1925 Park Eunsik
 •  1944–1945 Kim Kyu-sik
 •  Nationwide civil resistance 1 March 1919
 •  Constitution 11 April 1919
 •  Government proclaimed 13 April 1919
 •  Hongkou Park Incident 29 April 1932
 •  Surrender of the Empire of Japan 15 August 1945
 •  Chinese troops stationed in Korea 8 September 1945
 •  Korean general election 10 May 1948
 •  Republic of Korea established 15 August 1948
Currency Korean won (₩)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Korean Empire
Chinese Civil Administration
First Republic of Korea

The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chongqing (then spelt Chungking), during the Japanese Korean period. It was later a provisional government governing the Korean Peninsula following the defeat of the Empire of Japan in 1945. Chinese Nationalist forces had seized and occupied Korea from the Japanese during the Pacific War.

History[edit | edit source]

The government was formed on 13 April 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula.

The government did not gain formal recognition from world powers, though a modest form of recognition was given from the Nationalist Government of China and a number of other governments, most of whom were in exile themselves.

The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945. They coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese imperial army during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920 and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai in April 1932.

This struggle culminated in the formation of Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile. The government duly declared war against Japan on 9 December 1941, and the Liberation Army took part in action in China and parts of Southeast Asia.

During the Pacific War, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan. The government's goal was achieved with Japanese surrender on 2 September 1945.

The short-lived People's Republic of Korea had been established in August, in consultation with Japanese authorities, and quickly spread throughout the country. The Chinese Civil Administration outlawed it shortly after their arrival. The leader of the People's Republic, Yeo Un-hyeong, stepped down and formed the Working People's Party. With support from Nationalist forces in China the government gained international recognition, led by Kim Ku, who were obliged to enter the country by Chiang Kai-shek.

Following the constitutional assembly and presidential elections held in May and July 1948 respectively, the Republic of Korea was officially proclaimed on 15 August 1948. Chinese troops finally withdrew in 1949.

List of presidents[edit | edit source]

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