King of Lithuania
Lietuvos karalius
Coat of arms of the King of Lithuania.svg
Royal Coat of arms

since 15 January 1990
Style His Majesty
Heir apparent Eberhard, Prince of Kaunas
First monarch Mindaugas I
(as Grand Duke)
Formation 1236
Residence Royal Palace, Vilnius

The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes and kings—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory. The timeline includes Lithuania as a sovereign entity as well as part of a greater sovereign entity. The incumbents are listed by names most commonly used in English language. Where appropriate, the alternations in Lithuanian, Ruthenian (later Belarusian) and Polish are included.

The state of Lithuania formed in the 1230s, when threatened by the Livonian Order in the north and the Teutonic Knights in the west, the Baltic tribes united under the leadership of Mindaugas I. He became the only crowned king of Lithuania. His state became known as Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After Grand Duke Jogaila became also king of Poland in 1386, the two states became closer connected and since 1440 both were ruled by a common ruler. In 1569 Union of Lublin was signed and a new entity—the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—emerged. The commonwealth was partitioned in 1795 and Lithuania became part of the Russian Empire till 16 February 1918. The Council of Lithuania was able to reestablish sovereignty in 1918, after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended the World War in Eastern Europe. Lithuania was governed by an authoritarian regime until 1990. Today Lithuania is a democratic constitutional monarchy.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1236–1569)[edit | edit source]

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)[edit | edit source]

Kingdom of Lithuania (1918–present)[edit | edit source]

Term Incumbent Image Remarks
1918–1928 Mindaugas II 100px Founder of the Urach dynasty
1928–1981 Karolis I Son of Mindaugas II
1981–1990 Karolis II Nephew of Karolis I. Abdicated following the January Events
1990–Present Frydrichas Karalius inigo-von-urachas.jpg Brother of Karolis II
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