Monarchy of Poland
Former Monarchy
Reconstruction of the Grand Coat of Arms of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom.svg
Royal Coat of arms
Eugenofbavaria.jpg
Leopold II
First monarch Mieszko I
Last monarch Leopold II
Style Royal Majesty
Serene Reigning Majesty
Grace
Highness
Official residence Wawel Castle
Warsaw Castle
Wilanów Palace
Appointer Hereditary
Elective
Hereditary
Monarchy started ca. 960
Monarchy ended 30 December 1989
Current pretender Carlo Tomasso Guillermo Poletti-Galimberti, Count di Assandri di Bavieria

Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 9th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). The longest-reigning dynasties were the Piasts (ca. 960–1370) and Jagiellonians (1386–1572). Intervening and subsequent monarchs were often rulers of foreign countries or princes recruited from foreign dynasties.

During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th–18th centuries). Polish independence ended with the Third Partition of Poland (1795) and was restored at the end of the Great War (1918) under the German House of Wittelsbach until the monarchy was abolished in 1990.

Leopold I of Poland (born Prince Leopold Maximilian Joseph Maria Arnulf of Bavaria; 9 February 1846 – 28 September 1930) was the first King of Poland (1921–30) in 126 years. He remains a controversial figure in Poland due to his German ancestry and his seemingly passive nature in the affairs of Polands early years.

Kingdom of Poland, 1916–1990[edit | edit source]

Ruler Lifespan Reign Began Reign Ended Notes Dynasty Image
Leopold I 9 February 1846 – 28 September 1930 (aged 84) 14 November 1918 28 September 1930 Elected King by the Regency Council Wittelsbach Prinz Leopold von Bayern, Prince of Bavaria.jpg
Konrad II 22 November 1883 – 6 September 1969 (aged 85) 28 September 1930 6 December 1969 Second son of Leopold Wittelsbach Prinz Konrad von Bayern, Prince of Bavaria.jpg
Leopold II 16 July 1925 – 1 January 1997 (aged 71) 6 December 1969 22 December 1990
(abdicated)
Son of Konrad II Wittelsbach Eugne prince of bavaria.jpg
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