|Kingdom of Montenegro|
|Краљевина Црнa Горa|
Kraljevina Crna Gora
Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori
Убавој нам Црној Гори
"To Our Beautiful Montenegro"
The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1914.
|Religion||Eastern Orthodox (official)|
Sunni Islam, Roman Catholicism
|•||1910–1912||Lazar Tomanovic (first)|
|•||1917–1918||Evgenije Popovic (last)|
|Historical era||World War I|
|•||Proclamation||28 August 1910|
|•||Treaty of London||30 May 1913|
|•||Annexed by Austria-Hungary||28 November 1918|
|Today part of||Yugoslavia|
The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice. In October 1918 while under Austro-Hungarian occupation Montenegro was annexed as a semi-autonomous component of Greater Austria.
History[edit | edit source]
Prince Nicholas of Montenegro proclaimed the Kingdom of Montenegro in Cetinje on 28 August 1910. King Nicholas I (as he became) had ruled the country as Prince since 1860, and had initiated several modernizing reforms at the beginning of the 20th century, such as introducing a constitution and a new currency, the Montenegrin perper.
Montenegro joined the First Balkan War in 1912, hoping to get a share in the last Ottoman-controlled areas of Rumelia. Montenegro did make further territorial gains by splitting Sandžak with Serbia on 30 May 1913. But the Montenegrins had to abandon the newly captured city of İşkodra (Skadar in Serbian, subsequently Shkodër) to the new state of Albania in May 1913, at the insistence of the Great Powers, despite the Montenegrins having invested 10,000 lives into the capture of the town (April 1913) from the Ottoman-Albanian forces of Esad Pasha.
When the Second Balkan War broke out in June 1913, Serbia fought against Bulgaria, and King Nicholas sided with Serbia. Once again Montenegro found itself tossed into war, in which it won substantial additional territory.
During World War I (1914-1918) Montenegro allied itself with the Triple Entente, in line with King Nicholas' pro-Serbian policy. Accordingly, Austria-Hungary occupied Montenegro in 15 January 1916 to October 1918.
On 20 July 1917, the signing of the Corfu Declaration foreshadowed the unification of Montenegro with Serbia. However the 1919 Peace Conference in Berlin crushed any hope for unity with Serbia, instead recognising Montenegro's annexation by the new Greater Austria. Nicholas I had staunchly opposed the annexation, but had no way of enforcing his hopes of returning to Montenegro. The Podgorica Assembly dethroned King Nicholas on 26 November 1918; he died in exile.