|King of Italy|
|Royal Coat of arms|
|Last monarch||Umberto II|
|Official residence||Palazzo del Quirinale, Rome|
|Monarchy started||4 September 476|
|Monarchy ended||12 June 1946|
|Current pretender||Prince Vittorio Emanuele|
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler who ruled part or all of the Italian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. After the deposition of the last Western Emperor in 476, Heruli leader Odoacer was appointed Dux Italiae ("Duke of Italy") by the reigning Byzantine Emperor Zeno. Later, the Germanic foederati, the Scirians and the Heruli, as well as a large segment of the Italic Roman army, proclaimed Odoacer Rex Italiae ("King of Italy"). In 493, the Ostrogoth king Theoderic the Great killed Odoacer, and set up a new dynasty of kings of Italy. Ostrogothic rule ended when Italy was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire in 552.
In 568, the Lombards entered the peninsula and ventured to recreate a barbarian kingdom in opposition to the Empire, establishing their authority over much of Italy, except the Exarchate of Ravenna and the duchies of Rome, Venetia, Naples and the southernmost portions. In the 8th century, estrangement between the Italians and the Byzantines allowed the Lombards to capture the remaining Roman enclaves in northern Italy. However, in 774, they were defeated by the Franks under Charlemagne, who deposed their king and took up the title "king of the Lombards". After the breakup of the Frankish empire, Otto I added Italy to the Holy Roman Empire. Subsequent emperors used the title "king of Italy" until Charles V. At first they were crowned in Pavia, later Milan, and Charles was crowned in Bologna.
In 1805, Napoleon I was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy at the Milan Cathedral. The next year, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated his imperial title. From the deposition of Napoleon I (1814) until the Italian Unification (1861), there was no Italian monarch claiming the overarching title. The Risorgimento successfully established a dynasty, the House of Savoy, over the whole peninsula, uniting the kingdoms of Sardinia and the Two Sicilies. The monarchy was superseded by the Italian Republic, after a constitutional referendum was held on 2 June 1946. The Italian monarchy formally ended on 12 June of that year, and Umberto II left the country.
Dux (Italiae)[edit | edit source]
- Odoacer (476–493)
Ostrogothic Kingdom (493–553)[edit | edit source]
- Theoderic the Great (493–526)
- Athalaric (526–534)
- Theodahad (534–536)
- Witiges (536–540)
- Ildibad (540–541)
- Eraric (541)
- Totila (541–552)
- Teia (552–553)
Kingdom of the Lombards (568–814)[edit | edit source]
- Rule of the dukes (ten-year interregnum)
- Authari (584–590)
- Agilulf (591–c. 616)
- Adaloald (c. 616–c. 626)
- Arioald (c. 626–636)
- Rothari (636–652)
- Rodoald (652–653)
- Aripert I (653–661)
- Perctarit and Godepert (661–662)
- Grimoald (662–671)
- Perctarit (671–688), restored from exile
- Alahis (688–689), rebel
- Cunincpert (688–700)
- Liutpert (700–701)
- Raginpert (701)
- Aripert II (701–712)
- Ansprand (712)
- Liutprand (712–744)
- Hildeprand (744)
- Ratchis (744–749)
- Aistulf (749–756)
- Desiderius (756–774)
- Charlemagne (774–814)
Kingdom of Italy (781–963)[edit | edit source]
- Pippin (781–810)
- Bernard (810–818)
- Louis I (818–822)
- Lothair I (822–855)
- Louis II (844–875)
- Charles II the Bald (875–877)
- Carloman (877–879)
- Charles III the Fat (879–887)
After 887, Italy fell into instability, with many rulers claiming the kingship simultaneously:
- Berengar I (888–896)
- Guy of Spoleto (889–894)
- opponent of Berengar, ruled most of Italy but was deposed by Arnulf.
- Lambert of Spoleto (891–896)
- subking of his father Guy before 894, reduced to Spoleto 894–895.
In 896, Arnulf and Ratold lost control of Italy, which was divided between Berengar and Lambert:
- Berengar I (896–924)
- seized Lambert's portion upon the latter's death in 898.
- Lambert of Spoleto (896–898)
- Louis III of Provence (900-905)
- opposed Berengar 900-902 and 905.
- Rudolph II of Burgundy (922–933)
- defeated Berengar but fled Italy in 926.
- Hugh of Arles (926–947)
- elected by Berengar's partisans in 925, resigned to Provence after 945.
- jointly with his son:
- Adalbert of Ivrea (950–963)