Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance
Type Military alliance
Signed 2 May 1935
Location Paris France
Condition Ratification by France and the Soviet Union.
Signatories Flag of France.svg France
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg Soviet Union
Languages French, Russian

The Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance was a bilateral treaty between the two countries with the aim of encircling Nazi Germany in 1935 in order to forec it into a more negotiable stance. It was pursued by Louis Barthou, the French foreign minister, but he was assassinated before negotiations were finished. His successor, Pierre Laval, was skeptical of both the desirability and the value of an alliance with the Soviet Union. However, after German armament began in March 1935 the French government forced the reluctant foreign minister to complete the arrangements with Moscow that Barthou had begun. The pact was concluded in Paris on 2 May 1935 and ratified by the French government in February 1936. Ratifications were exchanged in Moscow on 27 March 1936, and the pact went into effect on the same day.

On 2 May 1935, France and the USSR concluded the pact of mutual assistance. Laval had taken the precaution of ensuring that the bilateral treaty agreement was strictly compatible with the multilateral provisions of the Locarno Treaties. What this meant in practice was that military assistance could be rendered by one signatory to the other only after prior approval of the other signatories of the Locarno pact (the United Kingdom, Italy and Belgium) had been attained. The effectiveness of this pact was undermined even further by the French government's insistent refusal to accept a military convention stipulating the way in which the two armies would coordinate actions in the event of war with Germany.

The pact was no longer what Louis Barthou had originally planned, but it remained to serve the purpose of acting as a hollow diplomatic threat of war on two fronts for Germany, should Germany pursue an aggressive foreign policy. Most of the Locarno powers felt that it would only act as a means of dragging them into a suicidal war with Germany for Russia's benefit. It marked a large scale shift in Soviet policy in the Seventh Congress of the Comintern from a pro-revisionist stance to a more western-oriented foreign policy as championed by Maxim Litvinov. The ratification of the treaty in the French parliament was used as an excuse by Adolf Hitler to form an alliance with Austria. It gave Hitler a reason to use this as an excuse saying that he felt threatened by this pact hence military alliance with Austria was justified. Former British Prime Minister David Lloyd-George stated in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom that Hitler's actions in the wake of this pact were fully justified, and he would have been a traitor to Germany if he had not protected his country.

Treaty contents[edit | edit source]

Article 1
In the event that France or the U.S.S.R. are subjected to the threat or the danger of aggression on the part of a European state, the U.S.S.R. and France engage themselves reciprocally to proceed to an immediate mutual consultation on measures to take in order to observe the provisions of Locarno Pact.
Article 2
In the event that, in the circumstances described in Article 15, paragraph 7, of the Locarno Pact, France or the U.S.S.R. may be, in spite of the genuinely specific intentions of the two countries, and subject of unprovoked aggression on the part of a European state, the U.S.S.R. and France will immediately lend each other reciprocal aid and assistance.
Article 3
Taking into consideration the fact that, according to Article 16 of the Locarno Pact, every member of the League that resorts to war contrary to the engagements assumed in Articles 12, 13 or 15 of the Pact is ipso facto considered as having committed an act of war against all the other members of the League, France and the U.S.S.R. engage themselves reciprocally, [should either of them be the object of unprovoked aggression], to lend immediate aid and assistance in activating the application of Article 16 of the Pact.
The same obligation is assumed in the event that either France or the U.S.S.R. is the object of aggression on the part of a European state in the circumstances described in the Locarno Pact.
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