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Maximilian
Archduke of Austria

Archduke Maximilian in 1917
Regent of Austria
Regency 1 April 1922 – 23 November 1932
Monarch Otto I
Spouse Princess Franziska zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst
Issue
Archduke Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Heinrich of Austria
Full name
Maximilian Eugen Ludwig Friedrich Philipp Ignatius Joseph
House House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Father Archduke Otto of Austria
Mother Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony
Born 13 April 1895
Vienna, Austria-Hungary Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg
Died 19 January 1952 (aged 56)
Nice Comte de Nice flag.svg

Archduke Maximilian of Austria (Maximilian Eugen Ludwig Friedrich Philipp Ignatius Joseph Maria), Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (April 13, 1895 in Vienna – January 19, 1952 in Nice) was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and the younger brother of the Emperor Charles I of Austria. From 1 April 1922 to 23 November 1930 his was regent of Austria.

Life

Maximilian was the second son of Archduke Otto of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony. In 1915 Maximilian was made a knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, the special order of the dynasty, by his great-uncle Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria.

During World War I Maximilian served as a major in the Austro-Hungarian Army. He also had the rank of corvette captain in the Austro-Hungarian Navy. In February 1917 Maximilian was sent to Berlin to formally notify the German Emperor Wilhelm II of the accession of Maximilian's brother Charles as Emperor of Austria. In 1917 / 1918, with consent of Charles I, Maximilian established his household at Belvedere Palace in Vienna, held to the disposition of the imperial family by the government of Austria. In June 1918 Maximilian led the Austrian assault on the Dosso Alto. The air pressure of a shell which landed near him broke his ear-drum and caused a certain deafness. Maximilian was decorated with the Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold (with the war decoration and swords) for the Austrian victory.

Regency

In April 1922 his brother suddenly died and his nephew was far to young to rule the multi-national empire. Upon the advice of the Dowager Empress, Maximilian expressed his willingness to act as regent until the young emperor came of age. Imperial Chancellor Schober, along with the heads of government from the various states of the empire, proclaimed Maximilian regent. As regent, he worked hard to improve the dire economic situation multi-ethnic state found itself after the war. He did a lot to develop the agricultural sector, encouraged the electrification of the railway, tried to develop more tourism especially in the Alps. Trade with neighbouring countries such as Germany was encouraged. He also became a protector of local traditions and culture and initiated the creation of the law of protected monuments.

In November 1930 Maximilian attended the coronation of Emperor Otto I in Budapest. It was during this ceremony that he formally relinqished authority as head of state.

Marriage and children

Maximilian married on 29 November 1917 in Schloss Laxenburg (near Vienna), Princess Franziska zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, daughter of Prince Konrad of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst and Countess Franziska von Schönborn-Buchheim.

Maximilian and Franziska had two children:

  • Archduke Ferdinand (1918, Vienna - 2004, Ulm) married in 1956 to Countess Helene zu Törring-Jettenbach (born 1937), daughter of Princess Elizabeth of Greece and Denmark. They had two daughters and one son:
    • Archduchess Elisabeth (1957-1983), married James Litchfield
    • Archduchess Sophie (born 1959) married Prince Mariano Hugo of Windisch-Graetz
    • Archduke Maximilian (born 1961) married Maya Askari
  • Archduke Heinrich (1925, Munich - 2014, Zurich) married in 1961 to Countess Ludmilla von Galen (born 1939). They had three sons and one daughter:
    • Archduke Philipp (born 1962) married Mayasuni Heath
    • Archduchess Marie-Christine (born 1964) married Clemens Guggenberg von Riedhofen
    • Archduke Ferdinand (born 1965) married Countess Katharina von Hardenberg
    • Archduke Konrad (born 1971) married Ashmita Goswami

Titles and styles

Monarchical styles of
Maximilian Eugen of Austria
Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
Reference style His Imperial and Royal Highness
Spoken style Imperial and Royal Highness
Alternative style Sir
  • 13 April 1895 – 19 January 1952: His Imperial and Royal Highness Archduke and Imperial Prince Maximilian Eugen of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia
    • 1 April 1922 – 23 November 1930: His Imperial and Royal Highness The Regent of Greater Austria
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